Electroencephalographam (EEG) monitoring of neural activity is widely used for identifying underlying brain states. For inference of brain states, researchers have often used Hidden Markov Models (HMM) with a ﬁxed number of hidden states and an observation model linking the temporal dynamics embedded in EEG to the hidden states. The use of ﬁxed states may be limiting, in that 1) pre-deﬁned states might not capture the heterogeneous neural dynamics across individuals and 2) the oscillatory dynamics of the neural activity are not directly modeled. To this end, we use a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Markov Model (HDP-HMM), which discovers the set of hidden states that best describes the EEG data, without a-priori speciﬁcation of state number. In addition, we introduce an observation model based on classical asymptotic results of frequency domain properties of stationary time series, along with the description of the conditional distributions for Gibbs sampler inference. We then combine this with multitaper spectral estimation to reduce the variance of the spectral estimates. By applying our method to simulated data inspired by sleep EEG, we arrive at two main results: 1) the algorithm faithfully recovers the spectral characteristics of the true states, as well as the right number of states and 2) the incorporation of the multitaper framework produces a more stable estimate than traditional periodogram spectral estimates.
We propose a general statistical framework for clustering multiple time series that exhibit nonlinear dynamics into an a-priori unknown number of sub-groups. Our motivation comes from neuroscience, where an important problem is to identify, within a large assembly of neurons, subsets that respond similarly to a stimulus or contingency. Upon modeling the multiple time series as the output of a Dirichlet process mixture of nonlinear state-space models, we derive a Metropolis-within-Gibbs algorithm for full Bayesian inference that alternates between sampling cluster assignments and sampling parameter values that form the basis of the clustering. The Metropolis step employs recent innovations in particle-based methods. We apply the framework to clustering time series acquired from the prefrontal cortex of mice in an experiment designed to characterize the neural underpinnings of fear.
Filter banks are a popular tool for the analysis of piecewise smooth signals such as natural images. Motivated by the empirically observed properties of scale and detail coefficients of images in the wavelet domain, we propose a hierarchical deep generative model of piecewise smooth signals that is a recursion across scales: the low pass scale coefficients at one layer are obtained by filtering the scale coefficients at the next layer, and adding a high pass detail innovation obtained by filtering a sparse vector. This recursion describes a linear dynamic system that is a non-Gaussian Markov process across scales and is closely related to multilayer-convolutional sparse coding (ML-CSC) generative model for deep networks, except that our model allows for deeper architectures, and combines sparse and non-sparse signal representations. We propose an alternating minimization algorithm for learning the filters in this hierarchical model given observations at layer zero, e.g., natural images. The algorithm alternates between a coefficient-estimation step and a filter update step. The coefficient update step performs sparse (detail) and smooth (scale) coding and, when unfolded, leads to a deep neural network. We use MNIST to demonstrate the representation capabilities of the model, and its derived features (coefficients) for classification.
Principal component analysis, dictionary learning, and auto-encoders are all unsupervised methods for learning representations from a large amount of training data. In all these methods, the higher the dimensions of the input data, the longer it takes to learn. We introduce a class of neural networks, termed RandNet, for learning representations using compressed random measurements of data of interest, such as images. RandNet extends the convolutional recurrent sparse auto-encoder architecture to dense networks and, more importantly, to the case when the input data are compressed random measurements of the original data. Compressing the input data makes it possible to fit a larger number of batches in memory during training. Moreover, in the case of sparse measurements,training is more efficient computationally. We demonstrate that, in unsupervised settings, RandNet performs dictionary learning using compressed data. In supervised settings, we show that RandNet can classify MNIST images with minimal loss in accuracy, despite being trained with random projections of the images that result in a 50% reduction in size. Overall, our results provide a general principled framework for training neural networks using compressed data.
Stephen A Allsop, Romy Wichmann, Fergil Mills, Anthony Burgos-Robles, Chia-Jung Chang, Ada C. Felix-Ortiz, Alienor Vienne, Anna Beyeler, Ehsan M. Izadmehr, Gordon Glober, Meghan I. Cum, Johanna Stergiadou, Kavitha K. Anandalingham, Kathryn Farris, Praneeth Namburi, Christopher A. Leppla, Javier C. Weddington, Edward H. Nieh, Anne C. Smith, Demba Ba, Emery N. Brown, and Kay M. Tye. 3/3/2018. “Corticoamygdala transfer of socially derived information gates observational learning.” Cell, 173, 6, Pp. 1329-1342. Publisher's Version